Hazrat adam (peace be upon him)

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Hazrat Adam (peace be upon him)

As the first human being and the first prophet in world history, Allah created Adam (Alaihis Salam) directly with His own two hands (Chowad 38/75). God created Adam by blowing the soul into the most beautiful shape made of dry clay like glue and terracotta by combining the essences of all the elements of the earth.[1]

Then from Adam’s rib He created his wife Eve. [2] And for this reason, the female race naturally follows the male race and is attracted to each other. After that, through husband and wife, the human race continued to grow in the same way for ages. As described in the Qur’an, from the first day man started as a civilized man with full consciousness and knowledge and continues to be so even today.

Therefore, what some historians say about the transition of human beings from the barbaric age to the civilized age, such as caveman, wild man, primitive man, etc., is nothing but an illusion. Man has never been anything other than man throughout this long journey from the beginning. The ‘Theory of Evolution’ presented by Charles Darwin (1809-1882) in the 19th century that humans are the evolved form of monkeys or owls is currently a dead theory and has been rejected by almost all scientists.

The first man, the first father, Adam (AS) was given by Allah the knowledge and ability of all things and anointed him with the dignity of managing the Khilafah of Allah in the world. At the same time, he made all created things subservient to man (Lukman 31/20) and gave man superiority over everything (Isra 17/70). And that’s why Jinn-Angel ordered everyone to prostrate to Adam to show respect for human dignity. Everyone accepted that order.

But Iblis arrogantly disobeyed that order and was cursed forever (Baqarah 2/34). But he was a great scholar and worshiper. Therefore, despite being a genie, he was allowed to live with the angels and became their leader.[3] But he became jealous of Adam’s high status. As a result, Adam fell into the wrath of God because he did not prostrate due to pride and did not fear God. That is why an Arabic poet said,

لوكان للعلم شرف من دون التقى

لكان أشرف خلق الله إبليسُ

If knowledge without piety had any dignity,

However, Iblis was considered to be the best of God’s creations.

[1]. Muminun 23/12; Chaffat 37/11; Rahman 55/14; Three 95/4 etc.
[2]. Nisa 4/1; Muttafaq al-Alaih, Mishkat Ha/3238 Chapter ‘Marriage’ Section ‘Good treatment of women’. The main element of Adam is soil, hence he is called ‘Adam’. On the other hand, Eve is the root of Adam, who was then a living person. Hence he is called ‘air’, derived from ‘hai’ (living) (qurtubi), Bakbarah 35; Al-Bidayah One Nihayah 1/62 p.
[3]. Ibn Kachir, Al-Bidayah wan Nihayah (Beirut: Dar al-Qutubil Ilmiyyah, Tabi) 1/67.

Satan’s creation was a test for man

God created Iblis as a test for mankind and prolonged his life until the Resurrection. Satan’s only work is to divert people from the path of Allah and deceive them. He tells people to disbelieve. But when he disbelieves, Satan says ‘I am free from you. I fear Allah, the Lord of the worlds’ (Hashar 59/16).

On the other hand, Allah continues to guide people through the ages by sending prophets and books (Baqara 2/213). Starting from Adam to the last prophet Muhammad (pbuh), one hundred and four hundred thousand prophets have come to the world [4] and currently the holder and bearer of the Holy Qur’an, the last divine book, is held by the Muslim Ulama as the ‘warish’ of the last prophet [5] to carry out the responsibility of conveying the laws of God sent to the world. Doing (Maydah 5/67).

This rule will continue until the final destruction of the world i.e. Qiyamat. According to the prophecies of the last prophet, there will not be any slum or hut in the world, where Allah will not deliver the message of Islam.[6] Despite this, when there will be no one on earth who can say ‘Allah’, i.e. there will be no believers left who follow the true monotheism, then Allah will The doomsday will draw near and the doomsday will take place.[7]

Human bodies will all merge into the earth after death. But the souls will stay in ‘Illeen’ or ‘Sijjin’ according to their good or bad deeds (Mutaffaffeen 83/7, 18). Which will re-enter their respective bodies immediately after Qiyamah by Allah’s command (Fajr 89/29) and all people will be physically brought before Allah the Creator for the final reckoning (Mutaffaffeen 83/4-6).

Man’s address is three: 1- Darud Dunya. That is where we are living now 2- Darul Barakh. That is, the world of the grave after death. 3- Darul Qarar. That is, the eternal abode of Paradise or Hell at the end of the final judgment on the Day of Judgment.

Therefore the earth is only a temporary laboratory for man. People who have come down from paradise will return to paradise after the test in this testing place with good results, or will be thrown into hell as a failure. Then there will be their final stop and that will be their final and eternal abode.

Allah says, ‘We have created you from dust. I will take you back to that land. Then We will bring you out of that soil again’ (Tawhah 20/55). Then at the end of the judgment the disbelievers will be taken to Hell and the Muttaqis will be taken to Paradise (Jumar 39/69-73). Thus on that day the oppressor will receive his due punishment and the oppressed will be blessed with his due reward. On that day no one will be wronged (Baqarah 2/281).

Note that about Hazrat Adam (A.S.) is described in 50 verses in 10 Surahs of the Holy Quran.[8]

Now we will try to summarize the story of the creation of Adam in the light of the Qur’an, insha-Allah.

[4]. Ahmad, Tabarani, Mishkat Ha/5737 ‘State of the Hour’ Chapter ‘The Beginning of Creation and the Discussion of the Prophets’ Paragraph.
[5]. Tirmidhi, Ahmad, Abu Dawud Mishkat Ha/212 ‘Ilm’ chapter.
[6]. Ahmad, Mishkat Ha/42 ‘Iman’ chapter.
[7]. Muslim, Mishkat Ha/5516 ‘Fitan’ chapter.
[8]. respectively Surah Baqarah 2/31-37 = 7; Ale Imran 3/33,59; Maedah 5/27-32= 6; A’raf 7/11, 19, 26, 27, 31, 35, 172-73 = 8; Hijra 15/26-42 = 17; Isra 17/61, 70; Yasin 36/60. Total = 50

The story of the creation of Adam

Allah once called the angels and said, I want to create a ‘Khalifa’ i.e. representative on earth. Say, what is your opinion on this? They (probably in the light of the bitter experience of the previously created jinn race) said, O Allah! Do you want to plant someone in the world who will go there and cause havoc and bloodshed? But we are always engaged in obeying your orders and singing your praises and praises.

Here the angel’s statement was not for objection, but for knowledge. Allah said, “What I know, you do not know” (Baqarah 2/30). That is, Allah wants to cultivate such a creation in this world, who will be full of knowledge and willpower and with their own judgment-intelligence and thought-research will voluntarily-consciously obey the laws of Allah and worship Him. Like angels, not just commanding nations.

Meaning of the word Khalifa

Here the term ‘Khalifa’ or representative refers to Banu Adam as the next representatives of the Jinn, who will be representatives of each other on earth (Ibn Kachir). Or by this is meant Adam and later righteous rulers, who would represent Allah by establishing among the people obedience to Allah and righteous rulers. Because those who create mischief and shed unjust blood are not the representatives of Allah (Ibn Jarir).

But the first explanation is the pre-eminent one, which appears in the reply of the angels, that you will create representatives who, like the earlier Jinn race, will go to earth and cause corruption and bloodshed. In fact: ‘They may have said such a thing on account of the jinn race’ (Ibn Kachir).

Then Allah taught Adam the names of everything. ‘The name of everything’ means the knowledge of all creations, big and small, from the beginning of the world to the end, and the ability to use them. [9] By which Adam and Banu Adam can obey the creations and benefit from them.

However, comparing the collective knowledge of mankind with the infinite knowledge of God is like a drop of water from the chest of an ocean or water body. [10] It can be said that the talent and knowledge given to Adam is being distributed through the ages through his wise and scientific children and by him. The world is benefiting. After teaching Adam the names of everything, Allah presented him before the angels to prove his superiority.

Although the Qur’an only mentions angels, Iblis, a member of the jinn, was also present (Kahf 18/50). That is, Allah wanted Adam’s superiority over both the jinn and the angels to be proven, and in fact that was the case. But since the angels are superior and higher in status than the jinn, only their names are taken.

And the angels were already aware of the jinn’s previous origin and lawlessness in the world, so they had the same idea about humans and answered the question in the negative. It should be noted that “Allah created the jinn from the fire of the fire” (Hijr 15/27). But they are the ultimate in disobedience.

After presenting Adam before the angels, Allah asked the angels the names of those things. But for good reason they could not say that. Then Allah instructed Adam and he named everything. As a result, the angels frankly accepted their defeat and declared the greatness and holiness of Allah, saying, O Allah! We have no knowledge beyond what you have taught us. Surely You are All-Knowing and Far-Seeing’ (Baqarah 2/32).

Then Allah asked them all to prostrate before Adam. Everyone prostrated, except Iblis. He refused and puffed up with pride. As a result he became one of the disbelievers (Baqarah 2/34). At that time, Iblis presented an argument for himself and said, ‘I am better than him. For You created me from fire and you created him from clay’. Allah said, you go out. Cursed are you, upon you is My curse until the Day of Resurrection’ (Chowad 38/76-78; A’raf 7/12).

[9]. Ibn Katheer, al-Bidayah wan Nihayah 1/65.
[10]. Bukhari Ha/4727 Chapter ‘Tafseer’, Surah Kahf.

Explanation and purpose of prostration

Before creating Adam, Allah told the angels to prostrate before Adam (Ha-Meem Sajdah/Fuchsalat 41/11). Moreover, it is clear from the Qur’anic narrations that Allah’s command to prostrate Adam was not Adam as an individual, but the jinn and angels were asked to prostrate in respect to him as the representative of the future human race. This sijda was never the level of worship to Adam. Rather, it was only a symbolic and respectful prostration to show loyalty to mankind and promise to help them in all matters.

On the other hand, despite being among the disbelievers, Iblis did not deny Allah as the Creator and Sustainer. Rather, when Allah expelled him from Paradise forever, he called Allah as “Rab” and prayed,

قَالَ رَبِّ فَأَنظِرْنِي إِلَى يَوْمِ يُبْعَثُونَ-

O my Lord! Give me respite until the Hour of Resurrection’ (Hijr 15/36, Chowad 38/79). Allah granted his prayer. Then he said, ‘O my Lord! As you have led me astray, so I will tempt them all with the various beauties of the earth and lead them astray. But except those who are Your devoted servants’ (Hijr 15/34-40; Chowad 38/79-83).

Allah said to him, Get down and get out of here. You belong to the lowest. Here you have no right to be arrogant’ (A’raf 7/13). Note that even though Iblis was expelled from Paradise, God gave him the power to deceive and mislead people by entering into their veins.[11] And this was for testing people. Only by winning against Satan’s deception can man maintain his status of excellence and be blessed with Paradise in the Hereafter.

Otherwise there will be failure in this life and the hereafter. The fact that angels prostrate to humans and not to prostrate to Iblis indicates that humans should be wary of Satan at all times and maintain their superiority through obedience to Allah.

[11]. Muttafaq alaih, Mishkat Ha/68 ‘Iman’ chapter ‘Waswasa’ paragraph.

Adam’s Five Virtues

(1) Allah created him with His own two hands (Chowad 38/75). (2) Allah Himself breathed into him the spirit (Chowad 38/72). (3) Allah taught him the names of all things (Baqarah 2/31). (4) Allah commanded the angels to prostrate before him (Baqara 2/34). (5) Adam alone was created from dust. All others are created through parents (Sajdah 32/7-9).

The reason Iblis was cursed was his Qiyas. He argued against Allah’s order and said, ‘I am better than Adam. For You created me from fire and created him from clay’ (Hijr 29). Muhammad Ibn Seereen said, اول من قاس ابليس “Iblis made Qiyas first”. Hasan Bari also said similar.[12]

[12]. Al-Bidayah One Nihayah 1/66.

The female race is a part of and subordinate to the male

After the Sijdah ceremony, Allah created his wife Hawa as Adam’s mate, i.e. as his rib[13]. Wife’s name is ‘Hawa’ (Qurtubi). Then Allah said to them, “You two live in Paradise and eat whatever you please.” But be careful! Do not go near this tree. Then you will be among the transgressors’ (Baqarah 2/35).

This means that the prostration of the angels was only for Adam and not for Eve. Second, Eve was created from Adam’s form after the Sijdah ceremony, not before. He was not a separate creation. It proves that women are submissive to men. Allah says, “Men have authority over women” (Nisa 4/34).

Then the expelled Iblis cast his web of deception against Adam and Eve as his first target. So he first became very close to them and began to seduce them with many words. At one point he said, ‘The reason why Allah has forbidden you to approach that tree is that you will either become angels or you will become permanent residents here’ (A’raf 7/20). He then swore and said, “I am surely your benefactor” (Oi, 21).

“Thus he persuaded Adam and Eve, and caught in his deception, they partook of the fruit of the forbidden tree.” As a result, their private parts were exposed and they quickly covered it with leaves. Allah called them and said, “Did I not forbid you from this tree and say that Satan is your open enemy?” (Oi, 22) Then they repented and said

قَالاَ رَبَّنَا ظَلَمْنَا أَنفُسَنَا وَإِن لَّمْ تَغْفِرْ لَنَا وَتَرْحَمْنَا لَنَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ-

O our Lord! We have wronged ourselves. If you do not forgive us, surely we will be among the victims’ (23). Allah then said: Go down (from Paradise). You are enemies of each other. Your abode will be in the world and there you will enjoy wealth for a fixed period’ (24). He also said that, ‘In the world you will live, there you will die, and from it you will be resurrected’ (A’raf 7/20-25).

One point may be mentioned here that Eve was first deceived by the words of Iblis. Then there is no support in the Qur’an to say that Adam was deceived through him. There is nothing clear in Sahih Hadith. In this regard, the narration that came from Ibnu Abbas (ra) in Tafseer Ibnu Jareere, is Zaif.[14]

Second, the order to descend from Paradise was not a punishment for their sins. Because it was after repentance. So it was probably to teach him manners. Rather, the truth is that it was part of God’s preordained and visionary plan. Because Jannah is a place of fruition, not a place of action. Moreover, there is no opportunity for human offspring to grow in Paradise. That is why it was necessary to be brought down to the world.

After giving the first order, he again gave the order mixed with affection and grace and said, “All of you get down.” Then he gave the great honor of being Allah’s caliph on earth (Bakbarah 2/30; Fatir 35/39) and said, ‘Guidance will be revealed to you from me. For those who follow him, there will be no fear or worry. But those who reject it and believe it to be a lie, they will be the inhabitants of Hell, and they will abide therein forever’ (Baqarah 2/38-39).

Note that the Prophets were innocent and Hazrat Adam (A.S.) was undoubtedly innocent. He did no deliberate wrong. Rather, he was deceived by Satan’s prompting and temporarily forgot the prohibition of approaching the forbidden tree. As described in another verse,

 فَنَسِيَ وَلَمْ نَجِدْ لَهُ عَزْمًا- 

‘Then Adam forgot and I did not find firmness (of resolve) in him’ (Twaaha 20/115). Moreover, he did not become a prophet at the time of the incident, but after the incident of the stumble, Allah chose him as a prophet and sent him to the world and gave him guidance’ (A’raf 7/122).

One thing to note here is that in the case of Iblis, Allah said:

, قَالَ فَاخْرُجْ مِنْهَا فَإِنَّكَ رَجِيمٌ- 

“Get out of paradise. Surely you are cursed’ (Hijr 15/34; A’raf 7/18). On the other hand, in the case of Adam and Eve, he said,

 قُلْنَا اهْبِطُواْ مِنْهَا- 

Go down’ (Baqarah 2/36, 38; A’raf 7/24). It indicates that Iblees will never be able to return to Paradise. But the believers of Banu Adam will be able to return again, Inshallah.

[13]. Nisa 4/1; Muttafaq alaih, Mishkat Ha/3238 ‘Marriage’ chapter 10th paragraph.
[14]. Tafseer Ibn Jarir (Beirut: 1406/1986) pp. 8/109, Surah A’raf 7/22.

Nudity is Satan’s first work

Satan’s first attack on man was to strip his body of his clothes and make him naked. Even today, the first act of Satan’s followers and followers of Iblis in the world is to strip women outside the house and enjoy their beauty in the name of so-called empowerment and gender equality. But the past civilizations of the world have been destroyed mainly because of the availability of women and alcohol.

Therefore, after faith, the first duty for civilized and God-fearing servants is to cover their private parts and protect their modesty. All other duties are after this. A woman’s veil will not only be in her dress, but it will be inside her, in her speech, behavior and behavior in all matters. Every gesture and sweet voice of Parnari exerts an unfair influence on the heart of Parpurusha. Therefore modesty is the adornment of believing men and women and the guarantee of mutual security. Men and women shall lower their gaze from each other (Noor 24/30-31).

And keep the overall screen to each other and say only what is necessary in a natural brief manner. Every man and woman will work independently in their workplace and within their work environment while maintaining their individuality and veil and contribute to the welfare of family and society as much as possible. The plastic covering between the negative and positive as well as the electrical cables acts as a screen and protects against essential accidents and fires, similarly the screen between the male and female shields each other from any untoward incident.

Therefore, the human race living in this fragile environment of the world should be more careful and careful from the unintentional accident that happened in the life of the original parents in the holy environment of paradise due to the instigation of Satan. Quran and Hadith have warned us about that.

The mystery of human creation

Allah says,

وَإِذْ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلاَئِكَةِ إِنِّيْ خَالِقٌ بَشَرًا مِّن صَلْصَالٍ مِّنْ حَمَإٍ مَّسْنُوْنٍ، فَإِذَا سَوَّيْتُهُ وَنَفَخْتُ فِيْهِ مِن رُّوحِيْ فَقَعُوْا لَهُ سَاجِدِيْنَ

‘Remember the time when your Lord said to the angels, I will create ‘man’ out of dry soil mixed with rotten mud. Then when I have completed its form and I have breathed into it my spirit, then you will prostrate before it’ (Hijr 15/28-29). Elsewhere he says,

6 هُوَ الَّذِيْ يُصَوِّرُكُمْ فِي الأَرْحَامِ كَيْفَ يَشَآءُ لآ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ- (آل عمران )-

‘He is the One Who has shaped you in the wombs as He willed. There is no god but Him. He is the Great Mighty and the Great Scientist’ (Ale Imran 3/6). He also said,

يَخْلُقُكُمْ فِيْ بُطُوْنِ أُمَّهَاتِكُمْ خَلْقًا مِّن بَعْدِ خَلْقٍ فِي ظُلُمَاتٍ ثَلاَثٍ- (زمر )-

He created you in your mothers’ wombs in three layers of darkness’ (Jumar 39/6). The three coverings are the abdomen, rheum or uterus and the fallopian tubes or uterus.

The above verses describe the three stages of Adam’s creation. First, the creation of the body with clay, then the formation of its shape and the determination of the proportional rate of energy in the organs and the harmony between them, and finally, by infusing the spirit into it, giving existence to Adam. Then from Adam’s form (ribs) to create his mate.

These works of the beginning of creation were done directly by Allah with His own hands (Chowad 38/75). Then this man and woman live as husband and wife and the first twins born are the first human couple on earth created by man. Since then, the human race has continued to grow through the union of husband and wife.

Not only humans, but also flora, fauna and flora are created from the soil. And soil is created from water. Water is the source of all living things (Furqan 25/54).

The first and main unit of life of all soil organisms is ‘Protoplasm’. Which is called ‘primordial life’. From this all beings are created. That’s why scientist Maurice Bukaili called it Bomb shell. It includes all types of soil chemical constituents. Human life seeds contain four elements in abundance. Oxygen, Nitrogen, Carbon and Hydrogen.

The other eight are usually found in equal amounts. They are magnesium, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, chlorine, sulfur and iron. Eight other substances are found in small amounts. These are: silicon, molybdenum, fluorine, cobalt, manganese, iodine, copper and zinc. But by combining all these elements it is not possible to make the particles of life i.e. ‘protoplasm’.

A scientist has been trying to synthesize these elements for 15 years. But failed and no ‘particle’ of life was observed. This combination and the creation of life in it is not possible for anyone except Allah. Science has been forced to bow in this regard.

In the first stage of creating Adam directly from the soil and then from Adam to his wife Hawa in the next stage, God arranged for the generation of Banu Adam through Adam’s children. There are also seven levels. For example: the essence of soil or protoplasm, semen or sperm, coagulated blood, flesh, bone marrow, flesh surrounding bones and finally the transmission of spirit (Mu’minun 23/12-14; Mu’min 40/67; Furqan 25/44; Tariq 86/5-7). . After the husband’s sperm enters the ovum stored in the wife’s uterus, the child is born from the combined semen of both (Dahr 76/2).

It should be noted that there are millions of spermatozoa in a man’s single ejaculate. By Allah’s order, only one sperm enters the woman’s uterus. These sperm are either male Y chromosome or female X chromosome. Among them, the X chromosome of the woman’s egg is combined with the X chromosome, so a son or daughter is born by God’s command.

What a wonderful thing it is to grow like this for nine long months behind the three dark curtains of the mother’s womb, first: the creation of a full life being, and then to be born into the world as a living, vibrant and talented child. Is this unique and unimaginable creation possible for any human being?

Who is the great craftsman of the creation of the human child in the dark house of the mother’s womb? Who is the great architect who combines the 23 chromosomes of the father and the 23 chromosomes of the mother in that secret chamber to prepare the composite sperm? Who is the great artist, who nurtures the blood-clot shaped piece of life in the mother’s womb?

Then after 120 days, infusing it with spirit, he turned it into a living human child and pushed it out when it was full-grown (Abasa 80/18-20). As the pupil of the eye as the product of parents’ dreams? The skilled craftsman and the great artist of the wonderful machine of making people in the mother’s womb is none other than Allah! Subhanallahi wa behamdihi, Subhanallahil Azim!!

The Qur’an is the first to present information about the birth of a child from the mixed semen of a man and a woman (Dahr 76/2). Modern science has been able to find this information only in the last century in 1875 and 1912. Before him, all scientists, including Aristotle, believed that male sperm had no function. The hadith of the Prophet completely invalidated this view of the scientists. [15] Because it clearly states that the sperm of both men and women are equally effective in procreating children.

It should be noted that the semen in the mother’s womb is only in the form of bubbles for the first 6 days. Then the uterus is related. A boy or a girl child is not identified before three months. After four months the spirit is transmitted and the baby moves and sucks fingers. So that the mother does not have difficulty sucking the breast after delivery. At this time, four items were written on his forehead. His ajal (life), amal, rizq and whether he is lucky or unlucky.[16]

This is how the human race is progressing in the world. There is no exception to this rule except by the command of Allah. That is why Allah says to the arrogant people, “Does not man see that We have created him from a sperm?” Then he became a public debater’. He narrates various parables about us. But he forgets about his own creation, and says that who will revive these bones, when they rot and melt? (Yasin 36/77-78).

[15]. Muttafaq alaih, Mishkat ha/433-434 ‘Purity’ chapter ‘Ghusl’ section.
[16]. Muttafaq alaih, Mishkat Ha/82 ‘Iman’ chapter ‘Belief in Taqdeer’ paragraph.

After falling from paradise

Imam Ahmad, Nasa’i and Hakem (RA) narrated in a Sahih chain from Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Abbas (RA) that, ألست بربكم ‘Am I not your Lord? This famous ‘Ahde Alastta’ or pledge was taken from Banu Adam when Adam (as) was brought down from Paradise to earth. And this promise was taken in the valley of Na’man (وادى نَعْمَانَ), later known as the plain of ‘Arafat.[17] This proves that the location of Paradise and Hell is elsewhere outside the earth and still in its creation. was still there. Modern science is proving the information of the Quran and Hadith by finding countless solar lights far away from the earth and solar light.

[17]. Ahmad, Mishkat Ha/121 ‘Iman’ chapter ‘Belief in Taqdeer’ paragraph.

Adam’s landing place

There is disagreement as to where Adam and Eve were brought down from Paradise in the sky and placed on earth. As mentioned, Adam was brought down in Sarandeep (Sri Lanka) and Eve in Jeddah (Saudi Arabia) and Iblis in Barra (Iraq) and the serpent, the supposed vehicle of Iblus to enter Paradise, was brought down in Isfahan (Iran). Some have said that Adam was brought down to Mount Chafa in Makkah and Eve to Mount Marwa. Besides, more statements have come. However, since the Qur’an and Sahih Hadith do not say anything clear about this, it is better for us to remain silent on this matter.

Adam’s dignity and superiority

Allah created Adam and Banu Adam as ‘Ashraful Makhlukbat’ or the best creation. Allah says about this:

وَلَقَدْ كَرَّمْنَا بَنِيْ آدَمَ وَحَمَلْنَاهُمْ فِي الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ وَرَزَقْنَاهُم مِّنَ الطَّيِّبَاتِ وَفَضَّلْنَاهُمْ عَلَى كَثِيرٍ مِّمَّنْ خَلَقْنَا تَفْضِيْلاً- (الإسراء ৭০

‘We honored Banu Adam, carried them on land and water, gave them food as sacred things, and gave them high status above many of Our creations’ (Isra 17/70).

Here first through the use of the word كَرَّمْنَا it is said to give exclusive respect to human beings, which is not given to any other creation. Such as knowledge-conscience, thinking power, the difference between good and bad and right and wrong, the ability to exercise free will etc. Then by using the word فَضَّلْنَا it is said about giving people a higher status than others.

For example, the better way of life for people to improve, better taste in food, clothing, etc., legal and socialized life etc. are characteristic of other animals and are full of diversity. It is constantly changing, expanding, evolving and developing. But the structure of the nest of birds or the way of living of tigers and jackals in forests has remained unchanged for millions of years. Neither has it changed in the past, nor is it likely to change in the future.

People are moving and doing business with better transportation to improve on water-on-land-in-space. They are eating the best foods on earth, consuming delicious food and drinking the best drinks through advanced culinary systems, which is not possible for other animals at all.

One of the best aspects of human dignity is the endowment of the power of speech, which no other creature has been given. He is endowed with a variety of languages and colours, endowed with penmanship and advanced literary knowledge and the ability to compose richly ornamented sentences and poems, which no other creation has been endowed with.

One of the issues of human dignity is that all the visible and invisible creations of the world have been made submissive to humans (Lokman 31/20). As if the main goal of all God’s creation is man.

Everything is for people. The rays of the sun, the light of the moon, the twinkling light of the planets, the gentle flow of the air, the life-giving power of water, the fertilizing power of the soil, the burning power of fire, the multidimensional beneficence of electricity, the fields full of green granaries, the trees full of fruits, the colorful flowers in the garden, Ponds-rivers-seas full of various types of fish and gems-pearls, gold-silver and mineral resources stored underground and oil-gas fields, cattle and wild animals and birds abode for whom? Answer in one word: These are only for humans. Allah says,

هُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ لَكُم مَّا فِي الأَرْضِ جَمِيعاً

“It is He Who created for you everything in the world” (Baqarah 2/29).

The question is: when everything is for people, then people for whom? His answer is the same: ‘We belong to Allah, and to Him we shall return’ (Baqarah 2/156). “We have come for His worship, for His servitude in all matters (Zariat 51/56) and for the administration of His Caliphate in the world” (Baqarah 2/30). Everything in the world is worshiping Allah. All for a certain period (Lokman 31/29) governed under certain rules (Fatir 35/43). All are obedient to Allah and prostrate to Him and glorify Him alone. This specific rule of governing the world is ‘deen’ and absolute obedience and surrender to this deen is called ‘Islam’. That is why it is said

إِنَّ الدِّينَ عِندَ اللّهِ الإِسْلاَمُ

‘Religion’ in the sight of Allah is only ‘Islam’ (Ale Imran 3/19).

Islam has two sides, natural and human. The first pervades all universal nature. Where everything is directed directly by God in natural order. There is no exception to that rule (except by special command of Allah) (Yusuf 12/40; Ahzab 33/62; Isra 17/77).

The second is the practical principles of conducting human life which Allah has sent down through the ages through the prophets and messengers. This is called Islamic Shariah. Which began with Adam alaihis salam and ended and was fulfilled with the last prophet Muhammad sallallahu alaihe wa sallam (Maydah 5/3).

It should be noted that the religion of all past prophets can be called Islam in the literal sense, but terminologically only the last and complete religion sent to the last prophet is called ‘Islam’. Allah says,

فَأَقِمْ وَجْهَكَ لِلدِّيْنِ حَنِيفًا فِطْرَةَ اللهِ الَّتِي فَطَرَ النَّاسَ عَلَيْهَا لاَ تَبْدِيلَ لِخَلْقِ اللهِ ذَلِكَ الدِّينُ الْقَيِّمُ وَلَكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ- (الروم )

‘You devote your face to religion. This is the nature of Allah, upon which He created man. There is no change in God’s creation. This is simple religion. But most people don’t know that’ (Rum 30/30).

In the above verse, Allah Ta’ala has asked people to focus on the unchangeable religion, that is, the religion that has been established naturally in the world. The religion is reflected in human body and life flow. Due to adherence to the said religion, the fetus is created in the mother’s womb from the good sperm of the father. Then at the appointed time it landed in the world in the form of a human child with beautiful feet. Then, passing through childhood, adolescence, youth and adulthood, he reaches old age and at one point he dies.

There is no change in this law of birth and death of the body. In this case, all creatures, including humans, are ‘Muslims’ willingly or unwillingly obedient and surrendering to the inviolable laws of Allah (Al-Imran 3/83; Ra’d 13/15). This is the natural aspect of ‘Islam’ which every human being is bound to follow. The human body is therefore subject to natural laws. But he is independent in terms of knowledge. He can apply his knowledge independently.

The connection of man’s spiritual aspect with the superiority of his external form is a remarkable thing. But there is no difference between the outer side and the inner side of other creations in the universe. All of the moon and sun are light, all of the animals are full of animality. But man’s outer side has nothing to do with his inner side. Rather, it is more complicated and incomprehensible. It is a different world in the human body.

What cannot be seen, can only be perceived. Just as man is a biological being endowed with sixteen senses, he is also a conscious moral and spiritual being. The means of treatment and comfort of the human body are therefore more or less the same everywhere, but the treatment of his mental world and the feeling of happiness and sorrow are not the same for all.

Being a follower of Satan in the mental world, he often destroys his outer physical world. Basically, the ideas and beliefs nurtured in the psyche are reflected in the work world of people. Therefore, the Merciful Allah has sent divine guidance through the Prophets throughout the ages to guide the entire life of His beloved creation human beings. Like natural religion, this religion is immutable and eternal. And that is the external human aspect of Islam. Humans are given free authority to accept and practice the religion sent down through the Prophets for the purpose of managing the human side (Kahf 18/29; Dahr 76/4).

By fully following this Deen or Shari’at, people will find peace in this world and be blessed with Paradise in the Hereafter. And if he disobeys it, he will suffer turmoil in this world and will burn in the fire of hell in the Hereafter (Baqbarah 2/38-39; Taghabun 64/9-10).

Needless to say, this free will is the main reason why humans are the ‘best of creation’. In this is his test and in this is his paradise or hell. The greatest aspect of man’s excellence is establishing the Khilafah of Allah on this earth. Because he has been sent to the world as the ‘Khalifa of Allah’. [28] His main task is to plant the world beautifully according to the will of Allah and to fulfill the responsibility of representing Allah by conducting his life according to the laws of Ahir. As he will fulfill this responsibility of caliphate in his personal life, he will fulfill it in social and state life as well.

Everywhere he will prove himself as an obedient servant of Allah. No one in heaven and earth, mountain and mountain dared to accept this important responsibility. People willingly accepted this responsibility (Ahzab 33/72). But after coming to the world and seeing its glitter, people have become disillusioned and have forgotten about fulfilling the responsibility of Allah’s caliphate. Some show laziness about it, some deny it. Yet there will be a group of people who will fulfill this duty until the Day of Judgement.[29] Allah says.

وَمِمَّنْ خَلَقْنَا أُمَّةٌ يَهْدُونَ بِالْحَقِّ وَبِهِ يَعْدِلُونَ 

“Among those whom We have created is a group who guide and do justice to the boundary” (A’raf 7/181). Then he said,

سَنَفْرُغُ لَكُمْ أَيُّهَا الثَّقَلاَنِ

O jinn and humans! Soon We will focus on you’ (Rahman 55/31). That is, at a particular moment, this process of taking your test in the world will stop immediately and you will be revived and united in the field of Hashar. None of you will be spared from my judgment on that day.

God created the jinn from fire. They also had independent jurisdiction. But they disobeyed. Many people deny genes because they cannot see them with the naked eye. But there are many things that people do not see with external eyes. Therefore their existence cannot be denied. Like electricity, air flow, material taste and smell etc.

The prophet of man is the prophet of jinn. Among them are believers, kafirs and fasiqs. Jins understand the language of the people of the area where they live. On the way back from Tawaif in the tenth year of Prophethood, the jinn heard Surah Rahman in the voice of the Prophet in the valley of ‘Nakhla’ and every time Allah فَبِأَىِّ آلاَءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ Said, that’s when they replied, La beshaiyin min ni’amika rabbana nuqazibu falakal hamad.[30] They listen, understand and perceive people. The book of Allah is for all jinn and human beings. Therefore, their fate is the same as the fate of humans.

In fact, Adam and Banu Adam are the most beloved and best creations of Allah. Till death he has to stay in the laboratory of this world as a vigilant and active experimenter. His doomsday will begin after death. There will be no more opportunities for good and bad actions. Therefore, it is the duty of a wise man to depart from this world keeping the status of the best creation of God intact by following the rules of Ahi sent by Allah.

Remember that, ‘We are all for Allah and to Him we shall all return’ (Baqarah 2/156). “Our prayers, our sacrifices, our lives, and our deaths are all for Allah, Lord of the Worlds” (An’am 6/162). Banu Adam thrown from paradise may we return to paradise, may the merciful Allah grant us that tawfeek – Amen!

[28]. Bakbarah 2/30; An’am 6/165; Fathir 35/39.
[29]. Muslim, Ha/1920 ‘Leadership’ chapter.
[30]. Tirmidhi Ha/3522 ‘Tafseer’ Chapter Surah Rahman; Sanad Hasan, Silsila Chahihah Ha/2150.

Adam (as) in worldly management

Hafez Shamsuddin Zahabi (RA) said in the book of التب النبوى that all kinds of art work necessary in the worldly life of man has been started by some prophet through the revelation. Since then, it has improved and excelled over the ages. Most of the revelations that were first revealed to Adam (pbuh) were about cultivating the land, agriculture and industry. Adam (as) invented the wheeled vehicle for transportation.

With the evolution of time, various models of cars have been introduced. But the foundation of all vehicles is on wheels. It goes without saying that civilization moves forward based on wheels. So the one who introduced it first is the great discoverer. And he was our original father, the first man and the first prophet, Hazrat Adam (Alaihis Salam). which he received through Ahi. [31]

The first agricultural product of the world in the age of Adam was the ‘tin’ fruit. This has been proved by the examination of the dry fossils of a large three fruits of that period recently found in the territory of Palestine. In the Holy Qur’an, Allah swore by the fruit of ‘teen’. May Allah shower peace on our first father – Amen!

[31]. Tasfeer Ma’areful Quran pg 629.

The story of Adam’s two sons

Allah says,

وَاتْلُ عَلَيْهِمْ نَبَأَ ابْنَيْ آدَمَ بِالْحَقِّ.

“Recite to them (the People of the Book) the true story of the two sons of Adam. When they both offered sacrifices. Then the sacrifice of one of them was accepted. But the other’s sacrifice was not accepted. Then one of them said, I will surely kill you. In response, the other said, “Allah accepts only those who fear Allah” (Ma’idah 27). ‘If you raise your hand to kill me, I will not raise my hand to kill you. I fear Allah, the Lord of the worlds’ (28).

‘I think that you will be in hell with the sin of killing me and your other sins as a result. And that is the karma of the oppressors’ (29). ‘Then his mind moved him to fratricide and he killed him. As a result, he became one of the victims’ (30). Then Allah sent a crow. who began to dig up the earth to show how he would bury his brother’s body. He said, Alas! Could I not be like this crow, so that I could bury my brother’s dead body? Then he repented’ (Maidah 5/27-31).

In addition to the narration of the Qur’an, what has been narrated from Abdullah Ibn Amr and Abdullah Ibn Abbas (RA) with the ‘Zayyid’ (best) chain of ‘Maquf’ sources and what Hafez Ibn Kachir calls the ‘famous’ statements of several earlier and later scholars in his Tafseer and Tariq. According to him, Adam’s two sons were named Qabeel and Habeel (قابيل وهابيل) and Qabeel was the first child of Adam and the eldest and Habeel was his youngest.

Cause of murder

What the Quran says about this is that the two brothers sacrificed in the name of Allah. But Allah accepts the sacrifice of one, but not the other. Enraged at that, one killed the other, whose sacrifice was accepted.

Note that in those days, the sign of acceptance of the sacrifice was that a fire would come from the sky and disappear with the sacrifice. The Qurbani which was not accepted by the said Agni was considered to be a rejected Qurbani. Qabeel was engaged in agriculture. He scornfully offered some inferior kind of grain, wheat, etc., for sacrifice. Abel raised animals. He sacrificed his best Dumba for the sake of Allah. Then fire came from heaven and took away Abel’s sacrifice. But Kabeel’s sacrifice remained as it was. Qabeel got angry at this and said to Habeel, لَأقْتُلَنَّكَ ‘I will surely kill you’. Abel then admonished him and said in elegant language,

إِنَّمَا يَتَقَبَّلُ الله ُمِنَ الْمُتَّقِينَ، لَئِن بَسَطْتَ إِلَيَّ يَدَكَ لِتَقْتُلَنِي مَا أَنَا بِبَاسِطٍ يَدِيَ إِلَيْكَ لَأَقْتُلَكَ إِنِّي أَخَافُ اللهَ رَبَّ الْعَالَمِينَ

Surely Allah accepts (sacrifice) from pious servants. If you dare to kill me now, I will not dare to kill you back. For I fear Allah, Lord of the worlds’ (Maidah 5/27-28).

Ibnu Abbas (ra) said that the goat offered by Habil was later sent from Paradise by Ibrahim (as) to Ishmael in return for his sacrifice.[32]

It has been popular for ages among the People of the Book that the site of the assassination was in a cave in the mountain of Qasiyun (قاسيون) in northern Damascus. Which is still known as ‘Blood Cave’ (مغرة الدم). Although there is no definitive basis for this.[33]

Qurtubi said, Qabeel killed Habeel out of jealousy. He did not want his younger brother Habeel to be praised in the society as a better person than him. Hauk (Tafseer Qurtubi) Ibnu Kachir said, previously in Maydah 20 to 26 verses in 7 verses the disobedience of Banu Isra’il to Moses and their long 40-year captivity in Tih desert as their punishment. After hearing the humiliating history of Baran, the Jews of Madinah were told about the tragic consequences of the mutual violence of the two sons of Adam so that they would not disobey the last Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and deny the Qur’an out of mere jealousy’ (Tafseer Ibn Kachir).

Because even though they knew the last prophet, they did not believe him just because of the jealousy that he was born in the tribe of Ishmael instead of in the tribe of Israel. This known jealousy made the Jews the arch-enemy of the Muslims. Similarly, out of mere jealousy, Qa’il killed his younger brother Habeel and the first murder was committed in the world. Not only the Jews, but the Islam-haters throughout the ages are almost the same. The evil forces in today’s world are wreaking havoc everywhere against Islam and the Prophet of Islam, it is only a modern form of the eternal violence of lies against truth.

It should be noted that Kabeel killed Habeel in order to forcibly marry his twin sister against the Shari’ah of Adam (a.s.) and consider Habeel as a thorn in the path of the claimant of the said marriage. , Qurtubi, Ibnu Qachir etc. have narrated in the book of Tafseer, all of them are ‘Mursal’, Zaif and Mawzu. According to Ibn Kathir, these are merely Israelite fables and copied from the former Jewish scholar Ka’b al-Ahbar, who later became a Muslim.[34]

Ayyub Sakhtiyani said, the first person in the Muhammadan Ummah to act on this verse was the third Caliph Hazrat Uthman Ibn Affan (Ibn Kachir). Who, despite his power and at the cost of his own life, did not allow the people of Medina to take up arms to suppress the rebels. Hazrat Sa’d Ibn Abi Waqqash (RA) said, “O Messenger of Allah! What should I do when someone enters my house to kill me? The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said, كُنْ كَخَيْرِ ابْنَىْ آدَمَ ‘Be like the better of the two sons of Adam’ (meaning accept death like Abel). Then the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) recited the 28th verse of Maydah. [35]

Ibnu Kathir says that all these ‘Ashars assert that the sacrifice of the two sons of Adam was not subject to any special reason or involved any feminine matter. The clear meaning of the Qur’an supports this statement, which is stated in the 27th verse of Ma’idah. Therefore, it is clear from the previous matters that the reason for the fratricide was only because of the jealousy that the sacrifice of Habeel was accepted, but the sacrifice of Qabeel was not accepted (Tafseer Ibnu Kachir). Although Abel had no hand in it. This envy and anger towards the good is the innate nature of evil people. Which exists in all ages on earth.

As a result, good people suffer temporarily, but in the final judgment they benefit. On the other hand, evil people gain temporarily but they are the ones who suffer in the final judgment. By unjustly killing the innocent Habeel, Qabeel is temporarily satisfied with his outrage, but in the final judgment, he falls into eternal loss. Referring to that, Allah says, فَأَصْبَحَ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِيْنَ – ‘Then he will be among the afflicted’ (Mayadah 5/30).

The Prophet (pbuh) said,

لاَ تُقْتَلُ نَفْسٌ ظُلْمًا إلاَّ كَانَ عَلَى ابْنِ آدَمَ الأوَّلِ كِفْلٌ مِنْ دَمِهَا لِأَنَّهُ أَوَّلُ مَنْ سَنَّ الْقَتْلَ، رواه البخاريُّ-

‘When a man is killed unjustly, a part of the sin of murder is added to the record of the first son of Adam. Because it is he who initiates the first murder’.[36] He also said, ‘Whoever has his brother’s dishonor or any other form of oppression, let him get rid of it today, before the day comes, when he will have the dinar and Dirhams (gold and silver coins) will have nothing (ie before death). If he has any good deeds, then his unjust amount of good will be taken from it. And if he has no good deeds, then the sins of the oppressed will be imposed on the oppressor’.[37]

It has been described in the Qur’an

وَلَيَحْمِلُنَّ اَتْْقَاَلَهُمْ وَأَثْقَاَلاً مَّعَ أَثْقَالِهِمْ وَلَيُسْئَلُنَّ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ عَمَّا كَانُوْا يَفْتَرُوْنَ

“And they will surely bear their own sins and with them the sins of others, and they will be asked on the Day of Resurrection about the lies they tell” (Ankabut 29/13).

[32]. Tafseer Ibn Kachir, Ma’idah verses 27-31; accepted Tafseer Ibn Jarir, Abdullah Ibn Amr (RA), Sanad Zayid.
[33]. Ibn Kachir, Al-Bidayah wan Nihayah (Beirut: Dar al-Qutubil Ilmiyyah, Tabi) 1/87 p.
[34]. Al-Bidayah One Nihayah 1/87 p.
[35]. Abu Dawud ha/4257, 5962 ‘Fitan’ chapter; Tirmidhi ha/2204, Ibn Majah ha/3961 Sahih.
[36]. Bukhari Ha/3335; Muslim, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah; Mishkat Ha/211 ‘Ilm’ chapter.
[37]. Bukhari Ha/2449; Mishkat Ha/5126 ‘Etiquette’ Chapter ‘Oppression’ Article 21.

Educational subject

(1) The story of Qabeel and Habeel contains the proof of man being driven by instinct and having free will.

(2) There is evidence that killing people unjustly is the most heinous sin and Allah does not accept any good deed of the killer except repentance.

(3) God-fearing people do not do wrong for wrong, rather they trust in God and seek His recompense.

(4) As a result of wrongdoing, the wrongdoer repents at one time and is burnt in hell in this world and eats in Hell in the Hereafter.

(5) Good people consider the sufferings of the world as a test from Allah and are patient with them.

(6) If the oppressed is patient, then his sins are placed on the shoulders of the wrongdoer and the wrongdoer alone has to bear the punishment of the sins of two people.

(7) When a person dies, burial is the eternal decree given by Allah. There is this provision in Islamic Shari’ah (Abasa 80/21). Therefore, burning the dead people is a clear violation of the current age-old Sunnah.

(8) This chain of killing people unjustly starts with Qabeel, so that as many people will be killed unjustly until the doomsday, the burden of the sins of all the killers will be placed on the record of Qabeel. So the initiators of injustice beware!

Death and Age

The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said, “The best day of your days is Friday.” On this day Adam was created, on this day he died and on this day the Hour will take place…’. [38] Adam (as) was given the age of one thousand years. Being impressed by the beauty of Dawood (as) in the spiritual world, he gave him 40 years from his own age. As a result, he lived for the remaining 960 years.[39]

[38]. Muwatwa, Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi, Nasa’i, Mishkat Ha/1359; Sanad Sahih, “Salat” chapter “Jumu’ah” paragraph.
[39]. Tirmidhi, Mishkat ha/118 ‘Belief in Taqdeer’ paragraph; Sanad Sahih, Tirmidhi Ha/3076 ‘Tafseer Surah A’raf’. The same hadith is found in Mishkat Ha/4662 ‘Etiquette’ chapter ‘Salam’ paragraph. Where it is said that ‘Adam donated 60 years from his age’. Tirmidhi called the hadith ‘Hasan Gharib’ Sahab Mirqat and Sahab Tohfa both said that the hadith of donating 40 years is foremost (الرجح). Explanation of Dr. Tuhfatul Ahwazi Ha/5072.

Lessons from the biography of Adam (pbuh).

  1. He was directly created by the hands of Allah and created from clay. He attained life as a learned and complete man.
  2. He was the father of mankind and the first prophet.
  3. He was sent as the next representative of the Jinn race and as the Caliph responsible for governing the world.
  4. He was given the names of all the created things of the world i.e. the knowledge of them and the ability to use them.
  5. The superiority of the human race over all visible and invisible creations, including the jinn and the angels, is proven. All are loyal to them and engaged in their service.
  6. Adam was created in Paradise. Which was, and still is, created in heaven outside the earth.
  7. Eve was created as his mate from Adam’s rib in Paradise. Therefore the female race is always a follower of the male race and both are attracted to each other.
  8. Adam and Eve were brought down from the heavenly paradise to the world and in the valley of Na’man near Mecca, the capital of the world, i.e. in the field of Arafat, all the human beings born until the end of the day were created and taken from them the recognition and promise of ‘ahde alasta’, i.e. servitude to Allah.
  9. Man is the only intelligent creature on earth. He is given free will and freedom to do both good and evil.
  10. Adam possessed both humanity and prophetic innocence. At the instigation of Satan, he temporarily forgot the prohibition of Allah and repented by eating the fruit of the forbidden tree and repented. After repentance was accepted, he received prophethood. Therefore he was undoubtedly innocent. Similarly, if the descendants of Adam sin and repent, Allah forgives them.
  11. Man is taught not to be arrogant in the incident of Iblis’ arrogance behind Adam’s refusal to prostrate and his subsequent curse.
  12. Man is a unique being in combination of biological and spiritual aspects, which is not comparable to any other creation.
  13. Believers will return to Paradise after judgment on the Day of Judgement.
  14. All knowledge of worldly management was given to Adam and it was through him that the first land cultivation and wheeled transport began on earth.
  15. Everything is created for the service of man. And man was created for the servitude of Allah.

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